UET6 Task 02


As part of my study into Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training, I investigated ‘Transactional Analysis’; as soon as I read Freud, I thought ‘here we go!’ However, I found this to be a very enjoyable and interesting subject, in which I have already begun to integrate into my teaching practice. So please see the link below for a PDF copy of my essay.



The points below are the handwritten annotations, made on my essay from my tutor:

• An outstanding account of transactional analysis. You have extensively analysed and tested out the model for a variety of contexts.
• This is highly informative and invaluable. You have critically evaluated the full range of ESS.
• Excellent analysis Russell. You clearly describe the key factors of the original concept, from birth to developed behaviours.
• Ideal comparisons of behavioural characteristics.
• Excellent presentation of this model through descriptions and scenarios, combined with your own interpretation.
• Excellent term used.
• Further informative scenarios.
• Superb experiment undertaken Russell.
• Brilliant interpretations and recommendations for education.
• Creatively analysed to apply model.
• Ideal examples and use of appropriate language to teach ES.
• Excellent recommended strategy.
• Absolutely! Key factor illustrated.
• A superb example of your own testing of an adapted approach. Well done Russell. Great impact.


To accompany my essay, please see the brief slide show below, which illustrates the main points and visualises the functions of the different transactional categories.


S.M.O.G – This is an acronym, which stands for Simple Measure Of Gobbledygook
FOG – This is not an acronym but a term applied by Robert Gunning, which is referred to as the FOG Index

When communicating with learners you need to ensure that any written material is legible and can be clearly understood; if the language is too complex then they may not fully understand what is required of them;  more importantly, the learners may not understand what the lesson objectives are. So When I first heard about this, I was very intrigued; mainly because I take great pride with my clear and legible, written language. I usually spend hours creating assignment briefs and workshop handouts, checking and rechecking, to ensure that the creative nonsense that comes out of my head, translates into something cogent.

To calculate the readability, Robert Gunning created a formula that is applied to a 100 word sample from your target text. The formula is as follows:

So, I took a sample from one of my Level 3 Year 2 workshop handouts, and performed the above equation, my findings and results are as follows:

To confirm my workings I visited this website, which is an automatic FOG Index calculator and entered the same passage of text, the results were 13.85, Yay spot on, both reveal an average Grade of 14.

I explored this further and entered the same passage of text into an online SMOG calculator. As Readability Index Scores are American based, the results given are structured on their grade hierarchy, which is not the same as UK school years. However, this calculator also provides the target age range. The tests results stated: ‘Your text has an average grade level of about 13. It should be easily understood by 18 to 19 year olds’.’
Well that is absolutely peachy, as that is my target age range.

The breakdown of the results were as follows:



Improbable research: measuring the fog of prose
Abrahams, M. (2017). Improbable research: measuring the fog of prose. [online] the Guardian.
Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/education/2011/jan/17/improbable-research-dense-obscure-writing [Accessed 02 Oct. 2017].

Gunning Fog Index
Bowdoin.edu. (2017). Gunning Fog Index. [online]
Available at: http://www.bowdoin.edu/~allen/courses/cs101/Lab_5/fog-index.htm [Accessed 01 Oct. 2017].

The Fog Index and Readability Formulas: How it works
Klariti.com. (2017). The Fog Index and Readability Formulas: How it works. [online]
Available at: http://www.klariti.com/business-writing/Fog-Index-Readability-Formulas.shtml [Accessed 01 Oct. 2017].

Gunning Fog Index
Gunning-fog-index.com. (2017). Gunning Fog Index. [online]
Available at: http://gunning-fog-index.com/ [Accessed 26 Sep. 2017].

Readable | Free Readability Test Tool
Webpagefx.com. (2017). Readable | Free Readability Test Tool. [online]
Available at: https://www.webpagefx.com/tools/read-able/ [Accessed 26 Sep. 2017].


Transactional Analysis
Disorders.org – Find Therapists, Counselors, and Treatment Centers. (2017). Transactional Analysis. [online]
Available at: http://www.disorders.org/relationships/transactional-analysis/ [Accessed 10 Oct. 2017].

Freud and the Id, Ego, and Superego
Verywell. (2017). Freud and the Id, Ego, and Superego. [online]
Available at: https://www.verywell.com/the-id-ego-and-superego-2795951 [Accessed 10 Oct. 2017].

Transactional analysis for depression
Author: Mark Widdowson
Publisher: Routledge, 2015
ISBN: 113881234X

What Is an Ego State?
Uktransactionalanalysis.co.uk. (2017). What is an ego state? [online]
Available at: http://www.uktransactionalanalysis.co.uk/news-events/articles/item/2-what-is-an-ego-state [Accessed 11 Oct. 2017].

Transactional Analysis: Ego States Explained
Counselling-directory.org.uk. (2017). Transactional analysis: Ego states explained. [online]
Available at: http://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/transactional-analylsis-ego-states-explained [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

ANON. Beyond Beahviour
Anon, (2017). Beyond Behaviour. [online]
Available at: https://www.teachers.org.uk/files/Beyond-behaviour-Giles-Barrow.pdf [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

Ego States and Neural Networks
www.Internet-of-the-Mind.com. (2017). Ego States and Neural Networks. [online]
Available at: http://www.internet-of-the-mind.com/ego_states.html [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

TOMLINSON, I. Why All Teachers Should Learn Transactional Analysis
Tomlinson, I. (2017). Why All Teachers Should Learn Transactional Analysis. [online]
Available at: https://manchesterpsychotherapy.co.uk/why-all-teachers-should-learn-transactional-analysis/ [Accessed 12 Oct. 2017].

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