1. Analyse key factors for designing and using resources for reflective Teaching, Learning and Assessment.
2. Analyse and evaluate legal requirements and copyright guidelines for using and developing Teaching, Learning and Assessment resources.
Challenge Target: Recommend career advice for your specialist area.
Our starter was to recap prior learning via a question and answer session, five questions were projected on to the board, where we had to provide quick responsive bullet point answers; these were then discussed further to strengthen our overall understanding.
Guest Speaker – Irene Bailey
The talk tonight was from a member of staff from Fareham College, whose role is a Learning Technology Coordinator. The focus of the talk was about copyright law specifically within education. It was an interesting presentation, which started with some basic questions for the group such as ‘what is copyright?’ and ‘who owns the copyright?’. Irene mentioned about Creative Commons licence, which was founded in 2001 as a non-profit organisation to promote the use and sharing of creative work to all. There are seven variations of the CC licence; the basic allows others to copy, distribute and display the work only under the condition that it is for non-commercial purposes, the author is credited, the license is attached and that it is not edited/remixed. Then the most free licence is the CC0; this allows the user to remix, alter, display, distribute and sell the work without crediting the author. In the photography/graphics industry there are many websites called ‘stock/image libraries’; for either a subscription cost or a pay-per-use fee, they provide an assortment of images that a user can download for their needs. One of the most popular companies is Shutterstock; however, in recent years there have been numerous CC0 image websites appearing, which offer totally unrestricted use of the imagery. These include Pexels and Pixabay.
The most crucial part of this presentation was to understand, what as educators, we can and can not do in terms of copyright infringement. There are two main criterions, which govern the use of material that has been used within TLA or has been produced as a result of TLA, these are known as ‘Educational Exceptions’:
• Fair Dealing – For example, if the material is used for research purposes, educational presentations, forming criticisms or for private study and not commercial gain, then it is safe to use and show to studetns. There are some rules that have to be followed, such as you can not photocopy an entire book for your studetns, but you can copy a chapter or passage if it is 5% or less of the total volume. Even this has an exception, for example, if a visually impaired student needed to read a required book and it was not available in large print, then the book could be copied and enlarged to support their specific educational needs and requirements. A general concern, is teachers taking images direct from a Google search and using them in their powerpoint presentations. This is generally accepted as being lawful, as it is for Educational Purposes with no commercial intentions, however, with the majority of resources being uploaded to educational Virtual Learning Environments, there is the possibility that this material, which us deemed safe on a closed network being suddenly disseminated across the internet.
• Licences – All educational organisations would have purchased various licences, which permit them to utilise a wealth of resources. Fareham college has the following:
Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA)
The Education Recording Agency (ERA)
The Performing Rights Society (PRS)
Motion Picture Licensing Company (MPLC)
To conclude this copyright presentation, we were given a questionnaire containing seventeen copyright scenarios, where we had to state whether or not we thought they were ‘Permitted’ or ‘Not Permitted’. Statements such as:
• Copy a chapter of a college book to share with your local book club.
• Share a YouTube clip with studetns.
• Deliver a Power Point that you have created while working for another establishment.
Out of the seventeen scenarios, there were three that were categorically breaking copyright law; yet the majority of them could be interpreted a number of ways, where the answer would be dependent on other factors. For example, ‘Using a photo taken by a student in a leaflet to advertise your course’. A common practice for colleges and universities is to include a waiver at enrolment in the studetns agreement/contract, which they unwittingly sign over usage of any material produced whilst they are a student to be used for promotional purposes. But even so, the student has not given their direct consent on that particular work, so this could be problematic. Once the seventeen questions were reviewed, a general discussion took place where some further information was shared.
In the last half an hour of the session, we observed two more Careers Event presentations, very professional, with a wealth of information provided by both peers.
We are to still to continue preparing our presentation on our resource; the format seems to have shifted into a ‘Dragons Den’ style format, we were are to present and market our resource to the class, who will act as the dragons. As part of this we are to:
• Demonstrate the resource
• Explain the uses, benefits and inclusive qualities
• Market the Unique Selling Point of the resource
Upon reflection of my recent research paper into mobile phones in the classroom, I will present about the adaptability of smartphones and how they can be a powerful tool within most educational sectors.